The Team

Klaus Hentschel (mainly entries on astronomical, physical, chemical, geological and mineralogical illustrators)

Ann M. Hentschel (Stuttgart, mainly entries on anatomy, anthropology, geography and general science illustrators)

Torsten K. D. Himmel (Stuttgart, mainly entries on botanical and zoological, but also on cartographical illustrators and on globe makers)

Katja Haberl (Stuttgart) (completion of viaf- IDs and AKL-links)

Christian Lehmann (Stuttgart & Berlin): technical conception & IT implementation of the database

Amelie Fritsch and Fabienne Metzger (Stuttgart), temporalized geospatial mapping of DSI in Geo-Dariah maps of places and years of birth, death, and regional activity


External Contributors

Gerhard Wagenitz (†) with some 3 dozens entries on botanical illustrators and naturalists,

Tobias Krüger (Staatsarchiv Solothurn) (6 entries on geological and topographic illustrators),

Birgit Nemec (Vienna & Berlin) with c. 8 entries on anatomical illustrators,

Iriam Gomes Starling (Rio de Janeiro) with the names of c. 10 Brazilian illustrators,

Ana Maria Costa (Lisbon) with hints on a handful of Portugese illustrators and naturalists,

Paul Fuller and Katura Reynolds (Eugene, OR) with one entry each on anatomical resp. paleontological illustrators,

Mike Dickison (Whanganui Regional Museum, New Zealand) with an entry on Olive F. Tassart,

Catherine Levy (Jamaica) with an entry on Dr. Anthony Robins (active in Jamaica in the 18th c.),

Karen Reeds (Princeton, NJ) and Andy Mabbett with comments and additions to two or one existing entries, respectively,

Martin Schneider (Augsburg) with corrections and additions to the entry on Joseph A. Annedouche, a new submission of Christophe Annedouche as well as various other hints and additions in entries on Pierre Lackerbauer, Jacques Christophe Werner and Paul Hycinthe Chrétien R. C. Dumenil

Geoff Thompson (Queensland Museum, South Brisbane, Australia) with an entry on Frank Nanninga,

Tom Quick (Leeds) and the CSlides Project (Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics at the University of Oxford),

Geoffrey Belknap (Leicester) and a myriad of anonymous contributors to the Science Gossip Project,

Michelle Marshall, a Citizen Scientist and Volunteer Researcher for the Biodiversity Heritage Library

Andreas Kleinert (Halle) provided hints to several illustrators.

Norbert Vernier (Paris) provided information about six French mathematical illustrators.

Bettina Maurer (Stuttgart) provided information about various moulageurs in her BA-thesis (2017).

Penny Worley (Baylor Scott & White Archives at the Medical Library, Temple, TX) provided information about 3 medical illustrators.

Siobhan Leachman (Wellington, New Zealand) provided information, corrections and additions to more than a dozen entries.

Andy Mabbett (England) provided information for the entries on Robert F. Sternitzky, Jane Sarah Bell, Adriaan Reland & Camille Gabriel Schlumberger.

Donato Esposito (London, United Kingdom) provided information for the entry on Godefroy Durand.

David Hollombe provided detailed information for the entry on Eulalia Delile.

Lotte Burkhardt provided detailed information for the entries on Mellis/Stace, on Françoise Legendre and on Gertrud Burkhardt



While entering data we carefully check the available sources such as standard dictionaries, monographs, research articles and Internet sites (on the latter cf. here websites). Thousands of primary sources are listed in individual entries of DSI either under "worked for" (primary sources such as books with plates) or under "pub.sources" (for secondary sources on the illustrators). The following published sources have been particularly useful and are often abbreviated in our data base: 

ADB: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie. ed. by the "historische Commission bei der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften", München, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot 1912, 56 vols.

AKL: Allgemeines Künstler-Lexikon. Internationale Künstlerdatenbank, Munich: Saur, 2007 (= Artists of the World) 

Alberti 2018: Samuel J.M.M. Alberti: Drawing damaged bodies. British medical art in the 20th century, Bulletin in the History of Medicine 92,1 (2018): 439-473.

Andresen: Andreas Andresen: Handbuch für Kupferstichsammler oder Lexicon der Kupferstecher ..., Leipzig: Weigel, vol.1 (1870) A-K, vol. 2 (1873) L-Z; Supplement (Ergänzungsheft) ed. by Joseph Eduard Wessely, Enthaltend die seit 1873 erschienen hervorragenden Blätter nebst zahlreichen Nachträgen zum Hauptwerke, Leipzig: Weigel, 1885.

Baker 1978: Charles Baker: Bibliography of British Book Illustrators 1860-1900, Birmingham: Birmingham Bookshop 1978. 

Basan 1789: Pierre-François Basan: Dictionnaire des graveurs anciens et modernes depuis l'origine de la gravure,  2 vols., Paris: Cuchet & Prault, 1789 (first ed. Paris 1767).

Beelen 2012: Hans Beelen & Michaela Klinkow: Schauplatz der kriechenden und fliegenden Gewürmer. Kulturgeschichte der Insekten, Oldenburg: Isensee 2012. 

Benezit: Emmanuel Benezit: Dictionary of Artists, Éditions Gründ, 2006, containing 170,000 entries.

Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Stuttgart & Zurich: Belser, 1986.

Bierende, Moos & Seidl 2016: Bierende, Edgar, Moos, Peter & Ernst Seidl (Hrsg.): Krankheit als Kunst(form). Moulagen der Medizin. Tübingen: Museum der Universität Tübingen - MUT, 2016. (Schriften des Museums der Universität Tübingen MUT 12). 

Blake 2007/09: John Blake: Vermessung der Meere, Historische Seekarten, Stuttgart: Theiss 2007 or in Engl. version: The Sea Chart: The Illustrated History of Nautical Maps and Navigational Charts, London: Conway 2009. 

Bleichmar 2012: Daniela Bleichmar: Visible Empire. Botanical Expeditions & Visual Culture in the Hispanic Enlightenment, Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 2012. 

Blum 1993: Ann Shelby Blum: Picturing Nature. American Nineteenth-Century Zoological Illustration. Princeton 1993.

Blunt & Raphael: Wilfried Blunt & Sandra Raphael: The Illustrated Herbal, London: Lincoln, 1st ed. 1979; rev. 2nd ed. 1994.

Blunt & Stearn 1953: Wilfrid Blunt & W.T. Stearn: The Art of Botanical Illustration, London: Collins, 1953.

Bologna: Bologna, Giulio: Handschriften und Minaturen,. Das Buch vor Gutenberg, Munich: Sudwest 1989.

Bray 2001: Lys de Bray: The Art of Botanical Illustration. A History of the Classic Illustrators and their Achievements, London: Quantum Publ. 2001. 

Bridson 2003: Gavin D.R.Bridson, James D. White & Lugene B. Bruno (eds.) American Botanical Prints of Wto Centuries - Catalogue of an Exhibition, Pittsburgh: Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, 2003. 

Bridson & Wendel: Bridson, Gavin D R, & Wendel, D.E.: Printmaking in the Service of Botany, Pittsburgh: Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, 1986. 

Briggs 1979: Asa Briggs: Iron Bridge to Crystal Palace. Impact and Images of the Industrial Revolution, London: Thames & Hudson 1979.

Brun 1905/17: Schweizerisches Künstler-Lexikon. Redig. von Carl Brun, ed. by the Schweizerische Kunstverein. Frauenfeld: Huber 1905-1917, 4 Vols. 

Bruno 2010: Lugene B. Bruno.: Catalogue [of the] 13th International Exhibition of Botanical Art & Illustration. Pittsburgh: Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, 2010. 

Bryan: Michael Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and Engravers, New York: MacMillan, 1903. 

Butler 2000: Patricia Butler: Irish Botanical Illustrators and Flower Painters, Woodbridge: Antique Collectors' Club, 2000. 

BWN: Biographisch Woordenboek der Nederlanden, Haarlem 1850ff., also online at

Cameron 1981: Ian Cameron: To the Farthest Ends of the Earth. 150 Years of World Exploration, London & Sydney: Macdonald 1981.

Ceroplastics 2019: Roberta Ballestriero, Owen Burke & Francesco Maria Galassi (eds.) Ceroplastics. The Art of Wax, Lerma di Bretschneider, 2019.

Chansigaud 2007: Valerie Chansigaud: History of Ornithology, Amsterdam: North Holland Publ. 2009 (orig. French 2007).

Chansigaud 2009: Valerie Chansigaud: Histoire de l'illustration naturaliste, Paris 2009.

Choulant 1920: Ludwig Choulant: History and Bibliography of Anatomic Illustration, Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press 1920 (orig. German 1852 with later updates by the translator Mortimer Frank and others).

Clarke & Dewhurst: Edwin Clarke & Kenneth Dewhurst: An Illustrated History of Brain Function, Berkeley & Los Angeles: Univ. of California Press, 1972.

Cleevely 1974: R.J. Cleevely: A provisional bibliography of natural history works by the Sowerby family, Journal of the Society for Bibliography of Natural History 6 (1974): 482-559. 

Costa & Jardim: Fernanda Madalena Costa & Maria Estela Jardim (eds.) 100 anos de fotografia cientifica em Poertugal (1839-1939). Imagens e Instrumentos, Lisbon: Luis Miguel Bernando e Edicoes 70, 2014.

Damkaer 2002: David M. Damkaer: The Copepodologist's Cabinet: A Biographical and Bibliographical History, Part 1, Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 2002.

Dance 1989: S. Peter Dance: The Art of Natural History, London: Bracken Books 1989. 

Daniels 1974: Gilbert S Daniels: Artists from the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, Pittsburgh 1974.

Davidson 2008: Jane P. Davidson: A History of Paleontology Illustration, Bloomington, IN & Indianapolis, IN: Indiana University Press, 2008. 

DBA: Deutsches Biographisches Archiv. A retrocumulation on microfiche published by Saur in Munich from 1982 until 1985 on 1.447 fiches; also published in bookform as DBE in 1986 and re-issued with amendments in 2001.

DBE: Deutsche Biographische Enzyklopädie. Munich: Saur 2001.

DBI: Deutscher Biographischer Index. Munich: Saur 2001.

Debus: Allen A. Debus & Diane E. Debus: Paleoimagery. The Evolution of Dinosaurs in Art, Jefferson: North Carolina: McFarland, 2002 & paper back 2010.

DNB: Dictionary of National Biography, 1885ff.; suppl. since 1901 (see also ONDB as follow up in 2004).

Diefenbacher, Heinz & Bach-Damaskinos 2002: Michael Diefenbacher, Markus Heinz & Ruth Bach-Damaskinos: „auserlesene und allerneueste Landkarten“. Der Verlag Homann in Nürnberg 1702–1848. Nürnberg 2002.

Dolezel et al., eds. 2018: Eva Dolezel, Rainer Godel, Andreas Pecar & Holger Zaunstöck (eds.) Ordnen - Vernetzen - Vermitteln. Kunst- und Naturalienkammern der Frühen Neuzeit als Lehr- und Lernorte, Halle: Leopoldina, 2018.

Doppelmayr: Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr: Historische Nachricht von den Nürnbergischen Mathematicis und Künstlern, Nürnberg / Nuremberg 1730.

Dopplereffekt 2010: Petra Gördüren & Dirk Luckow (eds.) Dopplereffekt. Bilder in Kunst und Wissenschaft, Cologne & Kiel: Dumont & Kunsthalle Kiel, 2010. 

Ehring: Franz Ehring: Skin Diseases. 5 Centuries of Scientific Illustration, Stuttgart & New York: Fischer, 1989.

Emporium 2002: Emporium. 500 Jahre Universität Halle-Wittenberg. Landesausstellung Sachsen-Anhalt, Halle: Fliegenkopf Verlag, 2002.

Engen 1979: Rodney K. Engen: Dictionary of Victorian engravers print publishers and their works, Cambridge: Chadwyck-Healey, 1979 

Engen 1985: Rodney K. Engen: Dictionary of Victorian wood engravers, ibid. 1985. 

Falk 2004: Tilman Falk: Formschneider, in Reallexikon der deutschen Kunstgeschichte 10 (2004): 190-224.

Fischer 1986: Gerd Fischer: Mathematische Modelle. Aus den Sammlungen von Universitäten und Museen / Mathematical Models, Braunschweig: Vieweg, 1986.

Fleury 1969: Marie-Antoinette Fleury: Documents du Minutier Central Concernant les Peintres, les Sculpteurs et les Graveurs au XVIIe Siècle (1600-1650), vol. 1, Paris: S.E.V.P.E.N, 1969.

Fleury 2010: Marie-Antoinette Fleury & Martine Constans: Documents du Minutier Central Concernant les Peintres, les Sculpteurs et les Graveurs au XVIIe Siècle (1600-1650), vol. 2, Paris: Archives Nationales. 2010.

Flora Brasileira 2009: Flora Brasileira - História, arte & ciência, / Brazilian Flora. History, Art & Science (bilingual, ed. by Cecilia Impellizieri Martins , Rio de Janeiro: Casa de Palavra, 2009.

Fonseca 1974: Olympio da Fonseca: A Escola de Manguinhos: contribuição para o estudo do desenvolvimento da medicina experimental no Brasil, Oswaldo Cruz Monumenta Histórica vol. 2, Sao Paulo, 1973/74.

Ford 1992: Brian Ford: Images of Science: A History of Scientific Illustration, London: British Library.

Froriep 1820: Ludwig Friedrich Froriep & Robert Froriep: Chirurgische Kupfertafeln. Eine auserlesene Sammlung der nöthigsten Abbildungen von äusserlich sichtbaren Krankheitsformen, anatomischen Präparaten, so wie von Instrumenten und Bandagen [zunächst zur Ausstattung von S. Cooper's neuestem Handbuche der Anatomie bestimmt, Weimar: Landes Industrie-Comptoir, Weimar 1820.

Gabet: Ch. Gabet: Dictionnaire des Artistes de l'ècole Francaise au XIXe siècle, Paris: Madame Vergae, 1831. 

Gall 2017: Alexander Gall: Lebende Tiere und inszenierte Natur, NTM: Journal of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine 25 (2017): 169-210.

Geck 1982: Elisabeth Geck: Grundzüge der Geschichte der Buchillustration, Darmstadt: Wiss. Buchgesellschaft, 1982.

Gernsheim 1961: Alison Gernsheim: Medical photography in the nineteenth century, Medical and Biological Illustration 11 (1961): 85-92, 147-155. 

Gilbert 2000: Pamela Gilbert: Butterfly Collectors and Painters. Four Centuries of Colour Plates from the Library Collections of the National History Museum, London, Singapore: Beaumont Publ., 2000.

Gloor 1958: Baldur Gloor: Die künstlerischen Mitarbeiter an den naturwissenschaftlichen und medizinischen Werken Albrecht von Hallers, Bern: Berner Beiträge zur Geschichte der Medizin und der Naturwissenschaften, Nr. 15 (1958). 

Goddard 2017: Richard Goddard: "Drawing on Copper": The Basire family of copper-plate engravers and their works, Maastricht: Universitaire Pers Maastricht 2017.

Gonzales: Beatríz González & José Antonio Amaya: Pintores, Aprendices y Alumnos de las Expedición Botànica, diccionario, in: Revista Credencial Historia (Bogotá - Colombia). vol. 74 (Feb. 1996).

Grees 2002: Hermann Grees, Rolf Beck & Hans-Joachim Rosner: Der Schönbuch im Kartenbild der Jahrhunderte. Katalog einer Ausstellung, Tübingen: Selbstverlag des Geographischen Instituts der Universität Tübingen, 2002.

Grünthal 1957: E. Grünthal: Geschichte der makroskopischen Morphologie des menschl. Großhirnreliefs, Beiträge zur Geschichte der Psychiatrie und Hirnanatomie 5 (1957): 94-128.

Güttler 2014: Güttler, Nils: Das Kosmoskop. Karten und ihre Benutzer in der Pflanzengeographie des 19. Jahrhunderts, Göttingen: Wallstein-Verlag, 2014.

Haffer, Hudde & Hillcoat 2014: Haffer, Jürgen, Hudde, Hans & Brian Hillcoat: The Development of Ornithology and Species Knowledge in Central Europe. Bonn: Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig, 2014. ( Bonn zoological Bulletin. Supplementum 59).

Heller 1850: Heller, Joseph: Praktisches Handbuch für Kupferstichsammler oder Lexicon der vorzüglichsten und beliebtesten Kupferstecher, Formschneider, Lithographen etc, Leipzig, 2nd enlarged ed. 1850. 

Henderson 2015: Paul Henderson: James Sowerby. The Enlightenment's Natural Historian. Kew, Richmond: Royal Botanic Gardens, 2015

Hentschel 2002: Klaus Hentschel: Mapping the Spectrum. Visual Representation in Research and Teaching. Oxford University 2002.

Hentschel 2014: Klaus Hentschel: Visual Cultures in Science and Technology - A Comparative History, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.

Hentschel & Wittmann: Klaus Hentschel & Axel Wittmann (eds.) The Role of Visual Representations in Astronomy: History and Research Practice, Frankfurt am Main: Verlag Harri Deutsch, 2000 (= Acta Historica Astronomiae 9).

Herdeg 1973: Walter Herdeg:The Artist in the Service of Science, Zurich: Graphis Press, 1973.

Hirsch 1929-35: Hirsch, August (ed.) Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragenden Ärzte aller Zeiten. Vienna: Urban & Schwarzenberg. 

Hoquet 2007: Thierry Hoquet: Buffon illustré - Les gravures de l'Histoire Naturelle 1749-1767, Paris: Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 2007. 

Houfe 1981: Simon Houfe: Dictionary of British Book Illustrators & Caricaturists 1800-1914, Suffolk: Antique Collectors Club 1978, rev. ed. 1981 (contains mostly non-scientific illustrators). 

Indian Botanical Paintings 1980: Phyllis I. Edwards, James J. White, Don H. Nicolson & Robert W. Kiger (eds.) A Selection of late 18th and early 19th c. Indian Botanical Paintings -- Recording the Indigeneous and Introduced Flora of the Subcontinent, Pittsburgh 1980. 

Jackson 1975: Christine E. Jackson: Bird Illustrators: Some Artists in Early Lithography, Littlehampton 1975. 

Jackson 1978: Christine E. Jackson: Wood Engravings of Birds, Witherby, 1978 

Jackson 1989: Christine E. Jackson: Bird Etchings: The Illustrators and Their Books, 1655-1855,  Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press. 1989. 

Jackson 1994: Christine E. Jackson: Bird Painting: The Eighteenth Century, Suffolk: Antique Collectors' Club, 1994. 

Jackson 1999: Christine E. Jackson: Dictionary of Bird Artists of the World, Suffolk: Antique Collectors' Club, 1999.

Jardine 2014: Boris Jardine: Made real - artifice and accuracy in 19th c. scientific illustration, Science Museum Group Journal 2 (Autumn 2014), available only online at

Johnston 1992: Stanley Johnston: The Cleveland Herbal, Botanical and Horticultural Collections, Kent State Univ. Press, Ohio 1992. 

Jordanova 2000: Ludmilla Jordanova: Defining Features. Scientific and Medical Portraits 1660-2000, London: National Portrait Gallery 2000.

Karliczek & Schwarz 2016: André Karliczek & Andreas Schwarz (eds.) Farre. Farbstandards in den frühen Wissenschaften, Jena: Salana 2016.

Kelley 2008/2009: Corey Kelley, Monika Faber & Maren Gröning (eds.) Brought to Light: Photography and the Invisible, 1840-1900, San Francisco: Museum of Modern Art & New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 2008; in German transl.: Fotografie und das Unsichtbare, 1840-1900, Vienna: Brandstätter & Albertina, 2009.

Kemp 2006: Martin Kemp: Seen / Unseen. Art Science and Intuition from Leonardo to the Hubble Telescope, Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2006.

Kemp 2010: Martin Kemp: Style & non-style in anatomical illustration, Journal of Anatomy 216 (2010): 192-208.

Kirnbauer 1962: Kirnbauer, Franz: Die Entwicklung des Grubenrißwesens in Österreich, Blätter für Technikgeschichte 24 (1962): 60-129.

Kistemaker, Kopaneva, Meijers & Vilinbakhov 2005: Renée E. Kistemaker, Natalya P.  Kopaneva, Debora J. Meijers & Georgy V. Vilinbakhov: The paper museum of the academy of sciences in St. Petersburg c. 1725-1760, Amsterdam: Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, 2005.

Klingender: Winifred Klingender: Art and the Industrial Revolution, London 1968; in German transl.: Kunst und industrielle Revolution, Dresden: Syndikat 1974.

Knight 1977: David Knight: Zoological Illustration. An Essay towards a History of Printed Zoological Pictures, Kent: Dawson, 1977. 

Kramer 1996: Jack Kramer: Women of Flowers. A Tribute to Victorian Women Illustrators, New York: Stewart, Tabori & Chang, 1996. 

Krauss 1978: Rolf H. Krauss: Photographs as early scientific book illustrations, History of Photography 2 (1978): 291-314. 

Kullnick 1960: Heinz Kullnick: Berliner und Wahlberliner. Personen und Persönlichkeiten in Berlin von 1640-1914. Berlin: Hayn. ca. 1960. 

Kury 2013: Lorelai Kury: Plantas sem freonteiras: jardins, livros e viagens, séculos XVIII-XIX, in Kury (ed.) Usos e circulacao das plantas no Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, 2013: 230-323.

Kury 2014: Lorelai Kury (ed.) Representacoes da Fauna do Brasil Séculos XVI-XX, Rio de Janeiro: Andrea Jakobsson Estudio, 2014.

Kusukawa 2012: Sachiko Kusukawa: Picturing the Book of Nature. Image, Text and Argument in 16th C Human Anatomy and Medical Botany, Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 2012 

L'illustration anatomique: D. de Montmollin, M Schlup & M Schmidt: L'Illustration anatomique de la Renaissance au siècle des Lumières, Neuchatel: Bibliothèque publique et universitaire, 1998.

Lack 2008: Ein Garten Eden - Meisterwerke der botanischen Illustration, Cologne: Taschen 2008 (also available in English as: Garden of Eden. Masterpieces of Botanical Illustration).

Lack 2009: H. Walter Lack: Alexander von Humboldt und die botanische Erforschung Amerikas, Munich: Prestel, 2009.

Lack 2015: Hans Walter Lack: The Bauers. Joseph, Franz & Ferdinand. Masters of Botanical Illustration. An Illustrated Biography, Munich: Prestel 2015.

Lanckoronska & Oehler 1932-34: Maria Lanckoronska & Richard Oehler: Die Buchillustration des XVIII. Jahrhunderts in Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. Berlin Maximilian-Gesellschaft, 3 Vols. I: Die deutsche Buchillustration des Spätbarock und Rokoko, 1932, II: Die deutsche und schweizerische Buchillustration des Vorklassizismus, 1933, III: Die Buchillustration des XVIII. Jahrhunderts in Österreich, 1934 (contains mostly non-scientific illustrators). 

Lapage 1961: Geoffrey Lapage: Art and the Scientist, Bristol: Wright & Sons, 1961. 

Lawrence 1964: George H.M. Lawrence: Catalogue of an Exhibition of Contemporary Botanical Art and Illustration, Pittsburgh: Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, 1964.

Lawrence 1968: George H.M. Lawrence: Catalogue of the 2nd Int. Exhibition of Botanical Art and Illustration, Pittsburgh: Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, 1968-1969. 

Lederer 2019. Roger J. Lederer:  The Art of the Bird. History of Ornithological Art through Forty Artists, Chicago 2019. 

Théodore Lejeune: Guide théorique et pratique de l'amateur de tableaux, étude sur les imitateurs et les copistes, many vol. (Paris: Renourard, 1865)

Le Loeuff 1995: Jean Le Leouff: Les reconstitutions de dinosaures, Bulletin de la Société d'Études Scientifiques de l'Aude 95, (1995): 11-25.

Le Loeuff:  Jean Le Loeuff: Les premières représentations littéraires de dinosaures au XIXe siècle, chap. 3 of Histoire des reconstitutions de dinosaures, 2013 ?

Leviton & Anderson 2013: Alan E. Leviton & Steven C. Anderson: The herpetological literature for Southwestern Asia. An indexed Bibliography, in: Occasional Papers of the Californian Academy of Sciences 161, (2013), X, 1-944. 

LGB: Lexikon des gesamten Buchwesens. ed. by Severin Corsten, Günther Pflug u. Friedrich Adolf Schmidt-Künsemüller. 2nd rev. ed. Stuttgart 1987. 

Lightman 2007: Bernard Lightman: Victorian Popularizers of Science. Designing Nature for New Audiences, Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 2007. 

Lubrich 2014: Oliver Lubrich & Sarah Bärtschi (eds.) Alexander von Humboldt - Das Graphische Gesamtwerk, Darmstadt: Wiss. Buchgesellschaft 2014.

Ludwig 1998: Heidrun Ludwig: Nürnberger Naturgeschichtliche Malerei im 17. und 18. Jahrhundert, Marburg: Basilisken-Presse, 1998. 

Magee 2009: Judith Magee: Art in Nature. Three Centuries of Natural History Art from Across the World, London: Natural History Museum 2009. 

Margócsy 2014: Daniel Margocsy: Commercial Visions. Science, Trade and Visual Culture in the Dutch Golden Age, Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 2014.

Maurer 2017: Bettina Maurer: Moulageure und ihre Netzwerke - eine prosopographische Analyse, Bachelorarbeit in GNT an der Universität Stuttgart, 2017.

Mdt. Köpfe: Mitteldeutsche Köpfe: Lebensbilder aus einem Jahrhundert. Frankfurt/Main: Weidlich, 1959.

Mengel 1980: Robert M. Mengel: Beauty and the beast. Natural history and art, in: Living Bird. For the Study and Conservation of Birds, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1980: 26-27.

Mokre 1966: Jan Mokre: Das Globenmuseum der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek, Wien: Bibliophile Edition, 2005.

Morisson 2015: Valerie Morisson: Photographic anthropological portraits in British Scientific Journals, 1860-1930, Textimage. Revue d'étude du dialogue text-image 7 (2015), online available at

Nadeau 2006: L. Nadeau: Encyclopedia of Printing, Photographic and Photomechanical Processes, Fredericton (Canada), 2006

Nagler: G. K. Nagler, Hg.: Neues allgemeines Künstler-Lexicon oder Nachrichten von dem Leben und den Werken der Maler, Bildhauer, Baumeister, Kupferstecher, Formschneider, Lithographen, Zeichner, Medailleure, Elfenbeinarbeiter, etc., Munich 22 vols, I: A-Boe (1835); II: Bör-Cleoe (1835); III: Cleom-Dumes (1836); IV: Dumet-Gallima (1837); V: Gallimb-Hasl (1837); VI: Hasp-Keym (1838); VII: Keys-Lode (1839); VIII: Lodg-Mege (1839); IX: Megl-Müller, Jan (1840); X: Müller, Jan-Passe, (1841); XI: Passe, (1841); XII: Poy.-Ren (1842); XIII: Rhe-Rubens,P. (1843); XIV: Rubens,A.-Santi,R. (1845); XV: Santi,A.-Schoute,J. (1845); XVI: Schoute-Sole (1846); XVII: Sole,G.-Surugue,L. (1847); XVIII: Surugue,P.L.-Torre,G. (1848); XIX: Torre,G.-Veis (1849); XX: Veit-Voue (1850); XXI: Voui-Witsen (1851); XXII: Witsen-Zyx (1852).

Nasim 2013: Omar Nasim: Observing by Hand. Sketching the Nebulae in the 19th century, Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 2013.

Nasim 2016: Omar Nasim: James Nasmyth's Hands, Eyes, and Mind in Photography, or, on Becoming a Lunar Being, Without the Lunacy, to appear in 2016.

NDB: Neue Deutsche Biographie. Berlin 1953 ff.

Neri 2011: Janice Neri: The Insect and the Image. Visualizing Nature in Early Modern Europe 1500-1700, Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press, 2011.

Nickelsen 2006a: Kaerin Nickelsen: Zeichner und Stecher der Berliner Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1700–1806, Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 29 (2006a), 293–308;

Nickelsen 2006b: Botanists, Draughtsmen and Nature: The Construction of Eighteenth-Century Botanical Illustrations, Berlin: Springer 2006b.

Nickelsen 2007: Kaerin Nickelsen: „In deutlichen Beschreibungen und richtigen Zeichnungen gemeinnütziger“ – Abbildungen in der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1773-1800, Annals of the History and Philosophy of Biology 11(2007): 155-176.

Nisi 2012: Peter Nisi: Die Obstmodelle aus dem Provinzial-Museum Hannover mit aktuellem Bestandskatalog des Landesmuseums Hannover. Eine kulturgeschichtliche Spurensuche zu den Obstkabinetten aus drei Jahrhunderten, Hannover: Niedersächsisches Landesmuseum, 2012.

Nissen 1966: Claus Nissen: Die botanische Buchillustration: Ihre Geschichte und Bibliographie, 2nd ed. with Suppl., Stuttgart: Hiersemann, 1966.

Nissen 1969/78: Claus Nissen: Die zoologische Buchillustration: Ihre Bibliographie und Geschichte, 2 vols., Stuttgart: Hiersemann, 1969 and 1978. 

NKL: Grieb, Manfred H. (ed.):Nürnberger Künstlerlexikon. Bildende Künstler, Kunsthandwerker, Gelehrte, Sammler, Kulturschaffende und Mäzene vom 12. bis zur Mitte des 20. Jahrhunderts, Munich: Sauer, 2007 (4 volumes with 25.000 entries).

Oehme 1961: Ruthardt Oehme: Die Geschichte der Kartographie des deutschen Südwestens. Herausgegeben von der Kommission für Geschichtliche Landeskunde in Baden-Württemberg, Konstanz & Stuttgart: Jan Thorbecke Verlag, 1961.

Oliveira & Conduru 2004:  Ricardo Lourenco de Oliveira & Robert Conduru: In the gap between science and art, A series of illustration of triatome bugs from the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, História, Ciências, Saúde-Manguinhos 11,2 (2004): 335-384 (in Portugese). 

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